Toxicity and Teratogenicity Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Phyla nodiflora in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Zoology, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Nagercoil. Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India


In India, Phyla nodiflora plant has often been used as traditional medicine for several years. In the current research, Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used as animal model to examine the toxic and teratogenic effects of the plant on embryonic development. Zebrafish embryos were treated with concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 µl/ml of the aqueous leaf extract of P. nodiflora. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines of safety level was met by the extract, which was found to have a median lethal concentration (LC50) value of117.21µl/ml. However, the teratogenicity assessment found that embryos exposed to extracts of concentrations 40 µl/ml and above exhibited a variety of developmental abnormalities. The magnitude of the defects was observed to be concentration-dependent. In addition, delayed hatching was seen at concentrations of 80 and 160 µl/ml owing to stunted growth and early death. The surviving embryos at the test concentration of 80 µl/ml indicated a substantial decrease in heart rate. As a result, the treated embryos had bent tail tips, scoliosis, edema in the yolk sac and curved tail. The current investigation has produced preliminary findings on the possible toxicity and teratogenicity of P. nodiflora leaf extract on zebrafish embryos.