Mitigating Oxandrolone-Induced Cardiac and Hematological Changes with Bee Venom: Insights from Adult Female Rat Studies

Document Type : Original Article


Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.


Anabolic androgens are used under medical supervision in treating certain diseases. Athletes up-use them to increase strength and endurance due to their lean body and muscle-building activities but this is prohibited to prevent their side effects. Nowadays females are interested in fantastic shapes affected by social media which encourages them to consume such androgens, especially oxandrolone. This research investigated possible bee venom antagonistic mechanisms to protect and cure body organs and functions against oxandrolone consumption adverse effects. Bee venom is selected due to its natural and unique components with many health-beneficial effects. Through this research oxandrolone overconsumption over time in female rats increased cardiac and ovarian tissue hypertrophy leading to their malfunction confirmed by significantly elevated (p≤0.05) cardiac serum function tests, increased plasma male sex hormone associated with decreased female sex hormones significantly (p≤0.05) in comparison with healthy group. Oxandrolone intake also increased the hematopoiesis to unpredictable levels. Oxandrolone initiated cardiac and ovarian lipolysis, oxidative and serum inflammatory status which arrested anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory (heme oxygenase-1 and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) pathways that were confirmed by their gene expression. Contrary bee venom-treated groups in (a protective, curative, and co-administered) manner improved all biochemical and genetic deteriorations caused by oxandrolone consumption significantly (p≤0.05) via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities with the most significant improvement recorded in the protective group.