Toxic and Teratogenic Effects of Sampa-Sampalukan (Phyllanthus niruri) Leaves Extract Using Danio rerio Embryo Assay

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assemblywoman Felicita G. Bernardino Memorial Trade School, Lias Marilao, Bulacan, Philippines

2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Bulacan State University, City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines

3 AD-DRUGSTEL Pharmaceutical Laboratories Incorporation, First Bulacan Industrial City, Tikay, Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines


  This paper established toxic and teratogenic effects of P. nururi leaves extract to the embryonic development of D. rerio. After 12 hours of exposure to various treatment concentrations, 100% coagulated embryos were observed in 1% and higher concentrations. Meanwhile, mortality in lower concentrations was found to be as time and dose-dependent. Coagulation was the most remarkable toxic effect of the plant leaves extract. On the other hand, heartbeat and hatchability rate of zebrafish embryo was affected in a dose-dependent manner. In teratogenicity testing, tail malformation was the most evident teratogenic effect of the plant leaves extract. Taken together, P. niruri leaves extract was embryo-toxic and teratogenic to D. rerio