Assessment of the Toxic and Teratogenic Effects of Kamagong (Diospyros discolor Willd.) Leaves Extract to the Developing Embryo of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assemblywoman Felicita G. Bernardino Memorial Trade School, Lias Marilao, Bilacan, Philippines

2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Bulacan State University, City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines

3 AD-Drugstel Pharmaceutical Laboratories Inc., First Bulacan Industrial City, Tikay Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines


This work highlighted the embryo-toxic and teratogenic effects of D. discolor leaves extract to the embryo of D. rerio, a model. Apparently, 100% mortality of embryos was observed in 5% and 10% treatment concentration at 12 hpta. Meanwhile, mortality in lower concentrations increases as time of exposure is prolonged and as the amount of treatment concentration increases. Coagulation was the toxic effect of the plant water extract. On the other hand, heartbeat and hatchability rate decreases as the amount of treatment concentration increases. In terms of teratogenicity, tail malformation was the most marked teratogenic effect of the plant extract. Moreover, growth retardation, head malformation, yolk deformities and abdominal edema were observed. Altogether, D. discolor leaves water extract exhibit toxic and teratogenic effects against D. rerio embryo. Thus, this plant contains active phytochemical components that can be developed as anticancer drugs.