Bioactive Compounds of Ziziphus spina-christi Seeds Extract and Cellulase Enzyme Attenuates the Growth of Acanthamoeba polyphaga Isolated From Contact Lenses

Document Type : Original Article


1 Parasitology Laboratory, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (71526), Egypt

2 Physiology laboratory, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (71526), Egypt

3 Parasitology laboratory, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (71526), Egypt

4 Parasitology laboratory, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Yemen

5 Assiut University Mubasher Mycological Centre, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

6 Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt


Background: Free-living Acanthamoeba spp. can cause sight-threatening amoebic keratitis and fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. The difficulties in protecting against Acanthamoeba spp. frequently begin with a lack of diagnosis and continue with a lack of treatment. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract from Ziziphus spina christi (ZSC) seeds and cellulase enzyme as potential treatments against Acanthamoeba polyphaga compared to chlorhexidine (CHX) treatment. Methodology: Acanthamoeba polyphaga were isolated from contact lenses and contact lens solutions and were observed daily for72–96 h and 3 weeks for trophozoites and cysts, respectively. Five groups, including ZSC, cellulose enzyme, the combination of ZSC and enzyme, CHX group, and control group < /em> were designed. Results: GC-MS analysis of the extract revealed ~ 85 bioactive compounds (primarily fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives). The antioxidant capacity of the extract at 800, 500, and 200 mg/ml was 1.972, 1.542, and 0.958 mg of ascorbic acid/g dry weight, respectively. Light and scanning electron microscopy observations revealed degeneration, decreasing in size, and distortion of the trophozoites and cysts.The viability of trophozoites and cysts was significantly reduced by different concentrations of the extract either alone or in combination with cellulose enzyme compared to 0.02% CHX. Conclusion: These results indicate that ethanolic extract from ZSC seeds (at the tested concentrations) and cellulase enzyme have anti-Acanthamoeba potential at various incubation periods.